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RESEARCH RESULTS ON THE TURIN SHROUD
(taken from the book „Das Bluttuch Christi“ (engl: The Blood Cloth of Christ) by Michael Hesemann)
[© STERA, Inc. www.shroud.com: left side shows the shroud and right side shows the negative picture of the „Man of the Shroud“]
Ø Human blood of the extremely rare blood group AB was found, which has only about 4% of the world population, among them an above-average number of Jews (today more Israelis have this blood group).
Ø The woven pattern of the shroud (herringbone pattern) dates back to the time of Jesus, as it was popular in Egypt, as well as a Z-twist, which first prevailed with the Romans in the Orient.
Ø Blood cloth (sweat cloth) and shroud have identical blood spots of the same blood group, and pollen, which exist only in Jerusalem, among other things:
- Ceratonia siliqua L.,
- Cistus creticus L.,
- Phyllirea augustifolia L.,
- Pistacia lentiscus L.,
- Ridolfia segetum Moris
Ø Study of the Sudarium (welding cloth):
1) Both sides were photographed in detail on both sides using different techniques.
2) First conventional photography (detailed study of the linen surface, photographs were later used for historical textile, morphological and anthropological studies to document every detail of the blood stains and to reconstruct the process that led to the formation of these stains and to detect differences in the consistency of the blood).
3) Then images of infrared reflection were taken with a sensitivity of up to 900 nanometers (nm) (the mean wavelength of visible light is about 550 nm) and with a digital CCD video camera with a sensitivity of up to 1100 nm (illumination with halogen lamps: visible frequencies were filtered away from the camera up to 690 nm and here the images only show infrared reflections of the linen, so that inscriptions and other markings not recognizable at first glance become visible (none were found in the Sudarium, but already in the Shroud!).
4) Photos in ultraviolet light (by mercury vapour low pressure lamps with filter and fluorescent material for UV light in frequencies above 450 nm) > specific material properties or the different density of coagulated blood can be determined (among other things) > back light photography (irradiated from behind) can make density of the blood traces recognizable as well as the woven pattern and the structure of the linen.
5) Photographed in side light at an angle of 10 degrees, all irregularities of the fabric (e.g. puncture holes) and every smallest fold emerge and were scanned with a high-performance scanner.
6) Camera shots were digitized and transferred to the computer in order to be able to study the blood spots better by color reversal/false colors, contrast enhancement and contouring of even the finest shades.
Ø Has irregular edges > Irregularities in the fabric testify to manual work -> was probably produced in a standing frame, as it was the usual production method for linen in antiquity.
Ø Sudarium and shroud have a Z-twist in the weaving pattern, which is characteristic for Roman linen, for the Orient the S-twist/ Through excavation it was discovered that both weaving patterns were common in Jerusalem.
Ø Traces of aloe myrrh mixture found on the linen using an electron microscope and mass spectroscope, which was glued to the blood and applied when the blood was still wet (used in antiquity for Jewish burials and mentioned in the Gospel of John at the burial of Jesus (see John 19:39-40)> comes from an ancient Jewish tomb.
Ø Three types of pollen on the cloth are typical for plants in the eastern Mediterranean, especially Palestine:
1) T. Pistacia terebinthus,
2) T. Quercus perennifolius,
3) T. Parietaria judaica.
Ø Using the optical microscope, black crusts were found, such as from coagulated blood > Whether it is human blood was tested using 6 common methods of forensic blood detection:
1) Teichmann reaction in the Bertrán variant: detection of the hematine's chlorohydrate - strongly positive.
2) Strzyowski reaction: detection of iodine hydrate - strongly positive.
3) Sardá reaction: Detection of bromohydrate in hematin - positive.
4) Takayama reaction: detection of alkaline hemochromogenic - positive.
5) Lecha-Marzo reaction: detection of hemochromogenic acid - positive.
6) Guarino reaction: detection of acid and alkaline hemotoporphyrin - positive.
> Under the optical microscope it already showed erythrocytes (red blood cells).
> Under the electron microscope, its strongly degenerated form showed that it must be the remains of very old blood.
Ø Another method to determine whether it is human blood: Immunofluorescence (IIF)=
> A specific antibody (primary antibody) is applied to blood residues,
> This is brought into contact with a second antibody, which is directed against the first antibody,
> This "secondary antibody" is coupled with an enzyme,
> enzyme-substrate reaction, which occurs only in human blood and leads to the formation of a visible dye,
> A tertiary antibody can be added to the signal amplification,
> This test showed that the blood particles reacted positively and that the blood is clearly human blood!
Ø The method of absorption elution showed that the blood had a weak indication at A and a positive indication at B > the Holzer modification came to the same result after a quantitative evaluation of the agglutinins (antibodies) and thus the blood group AB was determined.
Ø Pathologists were able to establish an exact chronology of the events with the help of the blood spots as well as diagnose the cause of death of the "man from the sweat cloth" by the degree of blood concentration:
> Multitrauma (series of most severe injuries) with massive strain on the blood circulation causes pulmonary edema ("water in the lungs"), i.e. leakage of blood fluid from the capillary vessels.
> Consequences: Difficulty breathing (not enough oxygen can get into the blood), respiratory arrest and heart failure.
> Only after the onset of rigor mortis could this serous blood flow unhindered through the nose, which can be found on the shroud.
Ø The second group of bloodstains was not serous and postmortem, but dark and arterial > it must have escaped from the scalp before death:
> Comparison with samples of pre-mortal and post-mortal blood from different stages of coagulation shows that the coagulation process had already started a good hour before the blood touched the cloth.
> Spots: irregular in size and arrangement. They probably came from puncture injuries and run in a parabola line along the back of the head, i.e. before his death he must have worn a kind of wreath or bonnet made of spines, which had not been artificially made because the wounds were too asymmetrical (as for example with thorns) > hard surface probably pressed from the outside against this crown of thorns, hence such deep injuries.
Ø The shape, length, width and length of the face and nose indicate a Middle Eastern human being (a noble, high-ranking Arab, at least a Semite):
Face height: 139 mm
Total nose length: 80 mm
Length of the bridge of the nose: 60 mm
Nose width: 25-30 mm
Height of nose tip: 21 mm
Ø It is safe to say that the deceased was crucified to explain, among other things, the amount of lung fluid that poured into the cloth.
Ø One thing is certain:
> He was male.
> He wore a full beard and long hair, which was tied together in the neck to a ponytail.
> He came from the Middle East, as facial shape and pollen findings prove.
> His blood type was AB.
> He died violently, had numerous injuries.
> Before he died, he most likely wore a crown of thorns.
> He was already dead when the Sudarium (sweat cloth) was put on; none of the traces of blood could have occurred when there was still a breathing movement.
> He died in an upright position, his arms probably attached to a crossbeam, his feet fixed. He remained in this position one hour after death.
> His head hung diagonally inclined downwards.
> Cause of death was cardiovascular arrest due to pulmonary edema caused by traumatic shock.
> For one hour the dead person must have been lying upside down on a hard surface before the arms (of the beam?) could be released.
> Then the dead body was transported down a smaller distance with its head. Since rigor mortis had already begun, the inclination of the head remained unchanged. He was accompanied by a woman (according to fingerprints on the cloth) who tried several times to prevent blood from escaping again (as can also be proven).
> When the Sudarium came loose, its second layer was wrapped around the head and knotted into a hood.
> After it had been pulled from his head, someone sprinkled a mixture of aloe and myrrh on the still wet blood stains, indicating a special respect for the dead man's blood or human blood in general. This could be an indication that the dead man and his relatives who buried him were Jews. The anthropological findings also permit this conclusion.
> The fact that the scarf was preserved suggests that something must have happened that suddenly gave it the greatest importance (usually grave cloths don't survive the time, never one such was discovered, besides this one here!). If it actually came from a Jewish context, it could only mean that the corpse with which the cloth had come into contact no longer existed as such. Otherwise the cloth would have been considered impure according to Jewish law and would never have been allowed to leave the grave.
> Crucifixion punishments were forbidden in 320 and the Romans only took Jewish burial rites into consideration before the Jewish Uprising in 66 A.D., after which the crucified were buried in pits in Palestine or thrown to the dogs, as elsewhere in the Roman Empire.
Ø The shroud was dated to the region of Judea and the period before 66 AD.
Ø The only known case in which the crucified one wore a crown of thorns (and had a lance thrust) was Jesus of Nazareth.
Ø Evangelist John mentions that Jesus died of pulmonary edema because when the Roman soldier pushed his lance into his side, "blood and water flowed out" (John 19:34), serous fluid.
Ø Renowned textile historian Dr. Mechthild Flury-Lemberg from Berne, Germany, notes that both the fabric structure and the special nature of the selvedge formation are documented for the time of Jesus. "Neither technical weaving nor sewing features speak against the originality of the canvas as a high-quality product of a manufactory of the 1st century," she notes as an expert.
Ø Zurich criminologist Prof. Frei-Sulzer identified several samples of pollen and microorganisms from the eastern Mediterranean and compared them with the samples from the shroud. By March 1976 he had identified 58 of them:
> A large majority was found in the entire Mediterranean region.
> Pollen of 14 plants were found, which today are exclusively native between Jerusalem and the Dead Sea.
> 9 more were common in the deserts and steppes of the Middle East (and thus also in the Holy Land), 8 were characteristic of eastern Turkey and the Anatolian highlands.
Ø Conclusion: Cloth must have spent a long time in the Jerusalem area.
Ø No color particles found, no painter of the 14th century could have painted a negative picture, did not even know what it was before the invention of photography. Anatomy knowledge of the Middle Ages was not sufficient to achieve a perfect representation of a human body.
Ø Falsifiers" Da Vinci: British sensation authors Lynn Picknett and Clive Prince were to blame. Da Vinci was only born in 1452 - almost 100 years after the first documented exhibition of the shroud in France.
Ø Shroud also does not show the Grand Master of the Templars - Jaques de Molay, as British Freemasons Christopher Knight and Robert Lomas claim = de Molay was not crucified, but burned at the stake in 1314, when he was already about 70 years old, which is far too old to be "the man on the shroud".
Ø In the Middle Ages and in the 17th century it was believed that the nails were placed on the back of the hand, which is historically wrong (but at that time this was exactly a sign of authenticity!). Nobody had the ability at that time to paint a negative picture or to understand only the negative character of the shroud: the shadowy and shadowy nature was considered a weak point rather than a feature of authenticity > therefore the claim that an artist of the Middle Ages had falsified the image on the shroud of Turin is downright absurd.
Ø Most of the physical features on the shroud go back to the state of rigor mortis and cannot be explained by the fact that a lying model was drawn.
Ø NASA's VP-8 image analysis computer was used to transform image intensity into reliefs: it turned the gray values of two-dimensional photographs (of planetary surfaces, for example) into three-dimensional landscapes on a computer screen. > Light-dark shades and changes in the intensity of discoloration of the canvas were digitized and converted into a three-dimensional image of a lying human corpse at intervals between the bodies depicted and the cloth: The picture on the cloth obviously contained information that is not accessible to the human eye and therefore no artist could ever have painted. Even a photo, i.e. a shot of reflected light, "flattens" the motif and does not lead to such an isometric profile that is "relevant for height".
Ø The process by which the image was captured on the canvas is unique and cannot yet be explained with the most modern technology," summarized Peter M. Schumacher, one of the developers of the VP-8 system, "the shroud image contains characteristics of a photographic negative, but also of an X-ray image and a three-dimensional gray scale coding.
Ø The age (34 years) and height (1.78m) of the dead were average values in Israel of the 1st century and the Talmud also says as an average. He wore his hair long and tied in the neck like the Nazarites, the abstinent and vegetarian living men of God of ancient Israel.
Ø No indication that color was used: Optical physicists from STURP ("Shroud of Turin Research Project") irradiated the image with ultraviolet light and this did not reflect it as color would have done.
Ø 1950: The French surgeon Prof. Pierre Barbet pointed out that the blood stains on the shroud show all the characteristics of human haemoglobin down to the most subtle details > 1978 confirmed by two series of detailed photographs under visible and ultraviolet light: The blood spots are surrounded by a fluorescent ring, which indicates serum, and red blood cells had deposited on its edge. > Each one was created as it corresponded to the injury and gravity, as blood would flow from a human body, which an artist of the Middle Ages could not have painted as forensically perfect as the shroud shows.
Ø Blood on the shroud just like human blood on the Sudarium:
> Prof. Dr. Pierluigi Baima Bollone from the University of Turin and the American research scientists Prof. Alan Adler and Dr. John Heller examined the fibers of the blood stains in parallel but independently of each other in Italian and American laboratories:
- 1981: haematological immuno-fluorescence and immuno-histio-chemical methods show -> clearly human blood (contains the pigment porphyrin which enters haemoglobin synthesis, haemochromogen and cyanmethahaemoglobin, bilirubin, proteins and human albumin = all components of human blood).
- The microscope clearly shows red blood cells and corpuscles, with pathologists and biochemists distinguishing between coagulated premortem and serous postmortem blood.
- Human DNA as well as blood group AB can be determined as on the Sudarium (both must have covered the same corpse over 1500 years ago in the 1st century of Israel).
Ø The experts attributed good preservation of the blood both to microorganisms and to a mixture with aloe and myrrh, which "preserved" the blood at a time when it was still moist. Ultra-sensitive anti-Aloe and anti-Myrrhe sera showed clear traces of both substances on the blood-soaked threads of the shroud, because under the microscope similar "tubers" appeared as on the Sudarium of Oviedo.
Ø Neutron activation confirmed the presence of antimony, an element dominant in aloe and myrrh.
Ø 1978 an investigation by electron microscope took place by scientist couple Roger and Mary Gilbert: microscopically small remainders of road dirt on the casting of the blood smeared and squeezed left knee, on the likewise bloody heel and the abraded and obviously broken nose found = stronger enlargement showed tiny, rhomboid Aragonite crystals - a mineral thus, which is composed of calcium carbonate (limestone) with traces of Strontium and iron. It occurs in exactly this composition in the earth of Jerusalem.
Ø > Crystallographer Dr. Joseph Kohlback was worried about the archaeologist Dr. Eugenia Nitowski several limestone samples from Jerusalem tombs of the time of Jesus = Detailed comparison showed that the shroud particles of all elements had the same values as the samples from Jerusalem; it was undeniably the same rock > The feet of the "man on the shroud" must have walked across the streets of Jerusalem without shoes, the shroud lay - hence the high concentration of limestone dust on the back - apparently once spread out on a stony base, for instance a grave bench.
Ø The frequency distribution of the individual pollen from the Turin Shroud shows that 91 of the 204 individual pollen come from a single plant -> the Gundelia tournefortii - the "thorny thistle": on the linen, to the right of the shoulder of the "man on the shroud" there was an imprint of this thistle! > Second plant imprint also discovered Prof. Danin on the linen: came from a branch of the "Zygophyllum dumosum" (bushy yoke leaf), an extremely rare plant native exclusively to the stone desert around the Dead Sea and on the Sinai:
- Prof. Danin: "Israel, more precisely the area between Jerusalem and Hebron, is the only area in the world where "Gundelia tournefortii, Zygophyllum dumosum and Cistus creticus (the Cretan cistus rose, also found on the shroud)" occur together.
- Prof. Danin and Dr. Baruch were even able to determine the season in which the Turin shroud had come into contact with these plants on the basis of the pollen and impressions, because only two months a year all three flower simultaneously = March and April!
> Jerusalem in the month of March/April = around the Easter season, since Hebron is to be excluded as a provincial nest, only Jerusalem remains.
Ø In 1976 NASA's VP-8 computer examined the three-dimensional qualities of the shroud image and an imprint was visible on both eyelids: an episcopal shepherd's staff and the letters YCAI.
Ø Front: A crosier ("Lituus" - the Roman seer or "augur") was visible in the middle, surrounded by a Greek inscription with the name of the Roman emperor during whose reign it was coined: TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC (pronounced: Tiberion Kaisaros), Emperor Tiberius:
- This coin was minted exclusively in the Roman prefecture of Judea in the years 29 to 32 A.D. - on behalf of the governor Pontius Pilatus.
- Miscoining of KAICAPOC, which was the Greek translation of the Latin CAESAR and this error is known worldwide with only 3 copies (correct would be KAIKAPOC) > Error must have happened at the beginning of the coin series - that is still in the year 29 - and be corrected quite quickly > since the probability of encountering such a miscoining was much higher at the beginning of the series, this indication alone would indicate a dating of the shroud into the year 29/30 AD.
- Pilate was only governor until 36 A.D.!
- Found on the right eye of the dead.
Ø Left eyebrow: another "Lepton" from the Pilatus embossing series, this time with a "Simpulum", a sacrificial vessel on the front > was embossed exclusively 28/29 AD.
Ø Coins on the eyes served to weight the eyelids in order to keep them closed, which the Jewish Talmud advises > custom well testified also in Judaea of the 1st century.
Ø Inscriptions on the shroud:
Ø In 1994 scientists Gregoire Kaplan, Marcel Alonso and nuclear physicist Prof. André Marion from the Parisian "Institut d´Optique Théorique et Appliquée d´Orsay" (Institut theoretische und angewandte Optik der Universität von Paris-Orsay) were able to filter out this inscription visibly.
Ø > Result = Inscription allegedly consisted of 5 words in Greek and Latin script, which were placed around the face image of the crucified one:
1) (O)PSKIA ("shadowy face")
2) (I)HSOY ("Jesus")
3) NNAZARENNUS IN NECE(M) ("on the death penalty")
4) REZON ("executed")
5) Letter sequences NN, IC, ADAU and SB.
= experts for palaeography found that the spelling is typical for the time before the 5th century.
= Italian medievalist Barbara Frale consulted experts in comparative palaeography who dated the writing to the 1st to 2nd century AD:
Ø "I think I managed to read the funeral certificate of Jesus of Nazareth," she explained.
Ø Raymond N. Rogers (a distinguished chemist at Los Alamos National Laboratories in New Mexico/USA) came into possession in 2003 of a cloth sample from the center of the cloth and samples from the edge: significant difference between the two =
- concerned the content of vanillin, a substance produced when the lignin of linen decomposes under the influence of heat = decomposition takes place quite regularly and can be used to determine the age of the material.
- Sample from the edge had 37% vanillin content, i.e. more recent origin, including restoration around 1534.
- Sample from the inside of the shroud: Vanillin content only found in traces (less than 5%), so it must be correspondingly older =
> Rogers received from Israel a piece of the linen into which the Dead Sea scrolls had been wrapped sometime before A.D. 66 in order to obtain unequivocally dated comparative samples. Also here the vanillin was only detectable to 5%, exactly like the shroud:
Conclusion: It must have originated between 1090 BC and 686 AD.
Ø C14 dating was falsified due to "bioplastic sheathing" as a large part of the blood had been destroyed by bacteria and replaced by fungal infestation, Dr Garzia-Valdes noted, but was able to assign the remains of human blood to blood group AB. He was able to attribute the comparatively bright color of the blood to a high proportion of bilirubin, a pigment that increases in the event of severe trauma, such as flagellation or crucifixion.
Ø Six doctors confirmed that the over and over bloodstained tunic, which was found, according to experts from 1898 and 1932-1934, originates from the Orient and has all the characteristics of a Roman textile from the 1st-3rd century.
- Nuclear physicist Dr. André Marion had compared the bloodstains on the tunic with the injuries of the man on the Turin shroud and found astonishing similarities. 9 out of 10 stains were absolutely congruent with larger wounds in the back area of the "man on the shroud", which had been identified by physicians as traces of flagellation. Apparently the convicted man had put on his robe again after this torture, he was dressed when he dragged the cross to the place of execution. Prof. Dr. Marion wrote a book about his studies ("Jesus et la Science" - Jesus and Science) that became a bestseller.
Ø In 1988, Dr. Gerard Lucotte, director of the "Center for Molecular Neurogenetics" in Paris and professor of anthropology, with the permission of the French Ministry of Culture, had examined the tunic > all results of the DNA (Semitic origin; blood group AB; the marker of chromosome Y corresponds to haplotype J, which most frequently occurs in Sephardic, i.e. Oriental Jews, etc.) correspond to those of the Sudarium and the Shroud:
- According to pathologists, the deformation of many blood cells indicates that the blood was shed after a severe, even traumatic, physical abuse.
- Pollen, grains of sand, limestone, traces of mica: evidence that it came into contact with dry, desert-like soil (Jerusalem).
Ø The tunic is literally soaked in blood," Lucotte explained at the colloquium in Argentina. Perfectly preserved red and even white blood cells were visible everywhere, apparently preserved by the salt crystals of human sweat and containing DNA.
Ø According to an Internet report, STURP chemist Ray Rogers gave New York geneticist Andrew Merriwether a sample of blood spatulas from the Turin Shroud; the material came from a wound on the crucified man's wrist. Merriwether identified male DNA; its markers of chromosome Y corresponded not only to haplotype J but also to the "Cohen Modal haplotype" - often to be found among Jews of the old Levite priesthood who, according to tradition, descended from the Moses brother Aaron:
> The patriarch Eutychius of Alexandria (10th century) stated - referring to older sources - that Mary's father Joachim was from the house of David, but her mother Anna descended "from the daughters of Aaron of the tribe Levi, the priesthood". Jesus should have inherited the "Cohen Modal Haplotype" from his grandmother.
Ø Lucotte examined a fibre of the shroud with blood spatulas on it and was able to report that with 99 percent probability the same person who was buried in the shroud had previously worn the tunic.
Ø The "Arachnomyces minimus" tubular fungus was found on a shroud, i.e. a "bioplastic sheathing" was present, so that a warning was given against a radiocarbon dating of the shroud, which would lead to incorrect dating, but which was already frequently used on the shroud at that time and gave misleading and false information.
Ø C14 dating of linen is generally considered problematic due to contamination.
Ø Shroud was exposed to high concentrations of candle smoke for centuries, which had a high C14 content and made it appear too young. Only substances that have not been used can be dated reliably due to lack of contamination.
Ø Various fires in the past caused a high amount of coal dust on the cloth and influenced the result of radiocarbon dating to determine its age.
Ø Jewish law: it could not be more than "forty less than one" (Dtn 25:3) = 39 blows with three-tailed scourges of the Romans inflict 117 wounds on the body:
- In his book "L´Vomo della sindone e Gesu" in 1969, Roman shroud researcher Msgr. Giulio Ricci meticulously proved that the man on the shroud actually counted "about 120 wounds", which were clearly inflicted on him by blows from two
- Bare flagellations were 39 blows, flagellations with subsequent crucifixion only 7 blows with the whip, i.e. that this man must have been Jesus, since Pilate wanted to release Jesus again after the flagellation (hence the full number of 39 blows), but then let him crucify and this speaks for Jesus, who is the only one who is considered and known for this special case.
Ø Not only was a wreath of thorns braided, but the legionnaires were auxiliary troops from Syria, the crowns of eastern kings were pompous hoods, and so in fact a wreath of thorns or - cap is the more realistic version, as can be seen on the shroud and Sudarium on the head.
- The traces of the thorns, the bleeding of the puncture wounds, are clearly visible on the Sudarium and on the shroud. In both cases the blood is deep red and of arterio-venous character, which testifies to the depth of the injuries = also the traces of the blows which can be seen on the forehead, the eyebrows, the right lower lip, the jaw and above all the nose of the shroud image. The nasal cartilage was torn, as the face as well as the nose print on the Sudarium show.
Ø Jesus did not carry a cross (would have weighed between 100 and 120 kg), would have been too heavy for his tortured condition, also for the healthy -> crossbeam ("patibulum") weighed "only" about 35 kg:
- The back of the man on the shroud has two wide bruises in the left shoulder blade zone and the right sopraskapular zone, here the crossbeam must have been resting on the shoulders. The impression runs in an oblique direction, which indicates that the left side of the "patibulum" was connected by a cord to the left ankle of the convicted person, which also explains a laceration on the left knee (there was microscopically fine street dust from Jerusalem) = the width of the crossbar can be calculated from the shroud impression; it was about 13 cm. > Hands were tied to the "patibulum", so any impact on the plaster could not be prevented, impressions on the shroud testify to bruises and falls on the face.
> Simon of Zyrene really existed, for in 1941 archaeologists found limestone chests in the Kidron Valley in a burial chamber, the chests of which were only used during the time of the Second Temple (between 20 B.C. and 70 A.D.) > One of them bore the inscription in Greek and Hebrew: "Alexander of Zyrene - Son of Simon" > Evangelist Mark: "Father of Alexander and Rufus". (Mk 15:21).
Ø Jesus wanted to drink, he was thirsty, he got it = ancient sources prove that a single sip of water can lead a crucified person to an immediate cardiac arrest -> John (eyewitness) describes that Jesus, immediately after he had drunk, "bowed his head and gave up his spirit" (John 19:30).
Ø Prof. Zugibe: "If I had to fill in the death certificate of Jesus in my capacity as a forensic doctor, I would write:
>> Cause of death: cardiac and respiratory arrest due to pulmonary edema, as a result of a circulatory and injury-related collapse (hypovolemic and traumatic shock) due to crucifixion."
-> It was the same diagnosis that Spanish pathologists made after evaluating the findings at the Oviedo Sudarium.
Ø Lancet stitch: "And immediately blood and water flowed out" (Jn 19:34)
> massive pleural effusion (water in the lungs)
Ø Nicodemus historically documented =
- real name: Nakdimon ben Guriyon.
- Member of Sanhedrin and teacher of Israel (John 3,10)
- according to rabbinical sources also one of the three richest citizens of the city and benefactor of proverbial generosity.
Ø The findings on the Turin Shroud correspond exactly to Jewish burial customs.
Ø Prof. Zugibe: "The body was washed, which made the exact shape of the wound recognizable in the first place."
> Apocrypha's Gospel of Peter (chapter 6, verse 24) speaks of
washing the Lord.
> Through the washing the wounds were freed from blood crusts and wetted again, whereby their precise contours were imprinted in the shroud.
> High amount of blood recognizable on the hand and arm wounds on the cloth: came out posthumously, when the nails were removed.
Ø Researches of the American internist Dr. Gilbert R. Lavoie confirmed by tests which imprints leave blood traces on linen after which period; Result: Blood of the nail wounds resembled the finding, which appeared after one and a half to two hours; corresponds to the Passion chronology, according to which the soldiers removed the nails between 16:00 o'clock and 16:30 o'clock, while at 18 o'clock the burial had to be finished because of the breaking Sabbath.
Ø During the burial the thorns that were still deep in the scalp of the crucified man were also removed. One of them was on the forehead. When it was carefully pulled out, the venous blood that had escaped meandered over the deep furrows of his forehead crease > the most striking characteristic of the Turin shroud.
> Pathologist Prof. Zugibe: "Blood can still flow from the wounds of a dead man, especially when death occurs violently."
- Post-operative bleeding!
- Cloth shows clear signs of rigor mortis.
- Fingerprints on the soles of the shroud testify to the burial.
Ø Prof. Zugibe: Red tone of the blood just like from victims of severe traumas. > Yellowish "aura" of blood. > No falsification of the Middle Ages, for nobody in the Middle Ages knew of such details.
Ø How long was the corpse in the linen?
> In medicine one knows the process of "fibrinolysis", the body's own dissolution of a blood clot by splitting it into small fibrin degradation products.
> According to the pathologists, this process must have been interrupted after about 36 hours in the case of the blood clot on the shroud, otherwise it would appear smeared as a result of excessive softening of the fibrin fibres, as can be proven by experiments. After 40 hours, decomposition would already have begun. But this also allows the exact time of Jesus' resurrection to be calculated:
- It must have taken place in the early morning hours of April 9, 30, around 5:00 a.m., just over 1 hour before the three women found the tomb empty.
Ø How did the image get on the shroud?
> Something must have happened that "exposed" the linen and "burned" the existing negative image into its uppermost fibers.
> Physicist Prof. Dr. John Jackson (formerly at the US Airforce Academy in Colorado Springs/USA) believes that it was radiation that converted the corpse, which had previously been wrapped in the linen, into energy:
- when the image was made, he no longer prevented the cloth from collapsing into a flattened position according to the laws of gravity.
- Assumption that the "dissolution" of the body, its transformation into energy, is the cause of the creation of the image:
>>>> At this moment the body became transparent, while the cloth fell into it. The body was transformed into radiation which, similar to ultraviolet light or low-dose X-rays, can cause a photochemical change in the cellulose on the top layer of the linen. Lower-lying fibres are shielded from others.
Ø This process can be imagined as in Mel Gibson's film "The Passion of the Christ", when the cloth sank together while the newly created resurrection body rose from it.
Ø Prof. Jackson's STURP colleague Dr. Donald Lynn from the "Jet Propulsion Laboratory" of the US space agency NASA in Pasadena/CA is of the opinion that the image must have been created by short but intensive radiation - for example electromagnetic waves in the ultraviolet range:
Ø "They "scorched" the inner surface of the material. The strong radiation, which chemically altered the cloth, could only have emanated from the corpse itself, i.e. it could not have radiated from the outside, because the front and back images only appear on the inside of the shroud and are also clearly separated from each other, not projected into each other.
Ø The physicist Oswald Scheuermann explains that on the corpse "under the influence of the capacitor field, an emission impulse radiating high energy over the entire surface of the corpse has been formed, forming an object on the canvas".
> Therefore the coins were also visible on the eyes; an effect that Scheuermann was able to replicate.
- His Italian colleague Prof. Giulio Fanti concretiises:
---- The man on the shroud radiated an intense energy, which led to an increase in pressure. In a fraction of a second, he dematerialized, releasing his atoms and suddenly coronally discharging his electrons, creating a "photo" on the shroud."
Ø Dr. Lynn: Rays from an external source cannot possibly be the cause, they spread spherically to all sides, would have X-rayed the body and never produced the clear contours of its image:
>> The radiation can only have originated from the corpse itself.
Ø The Karlsruhe chemist Prof. em. Dr. Eberhard Lindner: Only one electrically charged type of radiation is possible, the electron beams! He is convinced "that the resurrection process was accompanied by an electrically negatively charged electron beam of very high density (...). First, only the protons on the surface of the corpse must have sunk back from existence into nothingness, then the entire matter of the corpse disappeared from existence."
>> Scientifically this thesis is also verifiable!
>> The remaining electrons created the body image and the released neutrons also caused the increase of the radiocarbon content, which could have led to the "impossible" dating of 1988, so that it was rejuvenated.
Ø Believing in the resurrection of the flesh, the Jews collected the bones of their ancestors and kept them in limestone chests.
> For the same reason, Christians have rejected cremation from the beginning.
Ø Jesus' body was of a new, changed physique.
Ø He suffered the passion at the age of 34 (at that time a mature age).
Ø Prof. Dr. Juan Manuel Minarro Lopez (sculptor) reconstructed the exact face of the man from the shroud or Jesus of Nazareth exactly on the basis of the Turin Shroud. "This must have been how Jesus looked at the Last Supper."
[Prof. Minarros Reconstruction of the "Man of the Shroud". © CES]
Pictures from the German book by Michael Hesemann (showing a list of every Scientist of the blood cloth):